Lalitpur district forms a part of hilly city Bundelkhand sloping down from the outliers of the Vindhya Range on the south to the tributaries of the Yamuna River on the north. The extreme south of the district is composed of the parallel rows of long and narrow-ridged hills through which rivers flow down over ledges of granite or quartz and in North of the hilly region, granite chains have gradually turned into cluster of small hills.
The Betwa River forms the northern and western boundary of the district such that a considerable part of the district lies in watershed. The Jamni River which is a tributary of Betwa river forms the eastern boundary while the Dhasan River forms the district’s southeastern boundary and the southeastern portion of the district lies within its watershed.
Lalitpur district is generally a rocky area which has a highest ground in the extreme south with scraps of the vindhyan plateau, running from the betwa in south-easterly direction and gradually breaking up into a confined mass of hills, parts of which approach a height of 650 m above mean sea level. The north of the scrap, undulating plain of black soil interrupted with scattered hills and scoured by numerous drainage channals, stretches north beyonds the town of lalitpur and gradually becomes more rocky. Low red hills of granitoid rock then appear with long ridges running from south- west to north- west.
The major part of the district is drained by river Jamni and its tributaries which form the eastern boundary that separates it from tikamgarh district. River betwa forms the western and northern boundary and drains the western part of the district while the south-eastern part of the district is partly drained by Dhasan River and the slope lies towards the north.
In south of the district, hills generally occur in small groups or in continuous narrow chain running parallel to each other from north-east to south-west and the ridges are mostly bare and sharp. Slopes are mostly predominantly covered by scrub forest.
The plateau region of the district is intersected by wide valleys and the entire region which was once vegetated is now barren due to mining activity going on in this area.
From the base of the plateau black soil plains stretches through the district which is dissected by a number of seasonal rivulets and is characterized by an undulating topography. The principal rivers that transverse the area are the Shahzad, the Saznam and the Jamni.
This district also has an uneven red soil tract which is marked by existence of numerous bare or rocky hills dotted with scrub up to the northern part of Lalitpur.
The soils of Lalitpur are characteristics of Bundelkhand and comprise of four varieties which have been developed from the Vindhyan ranges of rocks that has been formed by gneiss, granite, quartzite and at times sandstone, limestone and slate.
The soil of the district is broadly divided into two groups Black and Red soils which are further categorised into four types of soils that are as follows:
Bundelkhand Type 1
It is a kind of red soil that is locally known as rakar which is further classified into Bundelkhand 1A and Bundelkhand 1B type. Bundelkhand 1A mainly exists around the rocky ridges in the southernmost part of this district while Bundelkhand 1B exists in northern part of the district. This soli although is not much useful for farming purposes, yet it is utilized for afforestation and also prone to severe hazards of erosion which can be avoided by embankment process.
It is also a type of red soil which is locally known as parua. It is also subdivided into Bundelkhand type 2A and Bundelkhand type 2B. This is sandy loam in texture, mature in profile and light to dark grey in colour such that it needs good irrigation facility during farming.
This soil is a type of black soil which is subdivided into two types type 3A and type 3B. The type 3A soil is locally known as kabar and it occurs mostly in the southern part of tehsil Lalitpur. This soil is coarse grained loam in texture and is mature in profile, has high clayey element. This soil is quite productive soil but needs very careful and timely management; otherwise it becomes difficult to handle.
The type 3B soil is locally known as the mar soil which is found around Balabehat in the southern part of tehsil Lalitpur. It is highly clayey in texture, mature in profile and black in colour .these soils are also water retaining soil and the drainage is poor on these soils and management has to be very careful.
Besides above stated soils, a strip of alluvial soil is also found in western part of the district.
The climate of the district is sub-tropical which is Central India type and is characterised by dry and hot summers and cold winters. Like other districts of Bundelkhand region it also has four seasons summer being from March to mid-June, Monsoon from mid-June to September, post-monsoonal transition between October and November while the winter months are December to February.